Effluent Treatment Plants(ETP)
Effluent is defined as waste water - treated or untreated - that flows out of a treatment plant , sewer or industrial outfall. It generally refers to liquid waste or sewage discharged into a water body which can either be a pond , lake , river or sea. The effluent is the liquid waste generated by hotels,hospitals, institutions , industries and commercial units. The effluent has a very negative impact on the water and soil since it contains extremely high levels of BOD , COD , TSS and even dissolved solids.
Hence an ETP is one type of wate water treatment method which is specifically designed to purify industrial waste water for its reuse with an aim to release safe water to the environment.
Industrial effluents contain various pollutants depending upon the type of industry. While some effluents may contain oil and grease, other effluents may carry more hazardous chemicals like cyanide etc. Effluent from food and beverage industry contain degradable organic pollutants.
Sewage Treatment Plants (STP)
STP are very similar to the way the normal septic tanks workbut mechanical components provide additional processes to help break down the solids so as to produce a more cleaner and environment friendly effluent.
Waste water and sewage from large number of properties are fed in primary settlement tank where solida and liquids seperate and the liqour flows into the biozone or areation chamber where a areator diffuses air or oxygen into the waste thereby encouraging the good bacteria to digest the organic matter thus breaking the organic matter dowm and purifying it.
As the water leaves the final chamber also known as settling chamber, the effluent is 95% clean and ready for discharge into local water courses ,ditches or land drainage systems.
Ultra - Filteration (UF)
Ultrafiltration is a variety of membrane filtration in which forces like pressure or concentration gradient lead to a seperation tru a semi-permeable membrane.
Suspended solids or solutes of higher molecular weight are retained in the retentate while water and low molecular weight solutes pass through the membrane in the permeate ( filterate ).
This seperation process is used in industry and research for purifying and concentrating macromolecular ( 10 *3 - 10* 10 Da ) solutions especially protein solutions. Hence this process if of a big usage in dairy industry.
UF membranes are defined by Molecular weight cut off (MWCO).
Zero Liquid Discharge (ZLD)
A ZLD treatment system utilizes advanced technological water treatment processes to limit liquid waste at the end of your industrial process to, as the name suggests, zero.
An efficient and well-designed ZLD treatment system should be able to:
- Handle variations in waste contamination and flow
- Allow for required chemical volumes adjustments
- Recover around 95% of your liquid waste for reuse
- Treat and retrieve valuable byproducts from your waste (i.e. salts and brines)
- Produce a dry, solid cake for disposal
ZLD treatment system will also help your facility meet stringent effluent requirements. Just keep in mind your facility's requirements will vary based on whether you are discharging into a publicly owned treatment works (POTW) or to the environment.
Water treatment is any process that improves the overall quality of water to make it more acceptable for a specific end-use. The end use may be industrial water supply, irrigation etc.
Water treatment deals with removal or addition of specefic salts,minerals,hardness,smell etc from water as per the requirement of the industry or client.
Commercial Reverse Osmosis Plants
Commercial Reverse Osmosis has long been used in places like dialysis clinics, restaurants, breweries and more. RO filtration systems may also be used in situations where sea water needs to be converted to freshwater or where water contains unwanted elements like lead or arsenic.
Industries and individuals completely rely on clean water from Reverse Osmosis Plants and their ability to turn hard water into soft, drinkable water suited for countless uses. But the benefits of using a commercial reverse osmosis system extend well beyond consumer health - substantial cost savings,improved energy effeciency,enhanced total system performance,scale reduction,superior taste and clarity and spot free rinses. Reverse Osmosis finds its application in numerous industries such a food and beverage production,boiler and cooling tower pre - treatment, bio-pharmaceutical manufacturing,water jet cutting, steam production and humidification and power generation.
Commercial Water Softeners
Water Softening is based on a process known as ion exchange, utilizing a synthetic polymeric (plastic) material in the form of very small beads called ion exchange resin. The resin is porous so that each bead has tremendous surface area and the surface area is chemically constructed to contain billions of active or "exchange sites." These sites have considerable affinity for metals in the water with valences (i.e., charges of +2 and +3). Thus, when water containing calcium, magnesium (the two major constituents of hard water), dissolved iron, copper or aluminum, the active sites attract and "hold" these ions.
Demineralization is the process of removing mineral salts from water by using ion exchange process. Demineralized water is completely free (or almost free) of dissolved minerals. Demineralized Water also known as Deionized Water, Water that has had its mineral ions removed. Mineral ions such as cations of sodium, calcium, iron, copper, etc and anions such as chloride, sulphate, nitrate, etc are common ions present in Water. Deionization is a physical process which uses specially-manufactured ion exchange resins which provides ion exchange site for the replacement of the mineral salts in Water with Water forming H+ and OH- ions. Because the majority of Water impurities are dissolved salts, deionization produces a high purity Water that is generally similar to distilled Water, and this process is quick and without scale buildup. De-mineralization technology is the proven process for treatment of Water. A DM Water System produces mineral free Water by operating on the principles of ion exchange, Degasification, and polishing. Demineralized Water System finds wide application in the field of steam, power, process, and cooling.
These filters are the most popular method for removal of turbidity from water.These filters use natural sand as a filtering agent trapping debris as it passes through. The Pressure Sand Filter consists of a multiple layer of sand with a variety in size and specific gravity. These Filters are designed to remove turbidity and suspended particles present in the feed water with minimum pressure drop. These Filters are custom designed to suit the process requirement. These filters are offered in Mild Steel, FRP or SS construction with face piping and associated Valves.
Activated Carbon Filters
Carbon filtering is a method of filtering that uses a bed of activated carbon to remove contaminants and impurities, using chemical adsorption.
Each particle, or granule, of carbon provides a large surface area, or pore structure, allowing contaminants the maximum possible exposure to the active sites within the filter media. One gram of activated carbon has a surface area in excess of 3,000 m2 (32,000 sq ft).
Active charcoal carbon filters are most effective at removing chlorine, particles such as sediment, volatile organic compounds (VOCs), taste and odor from water. They are not effective at removing minerals, salts, and dissolved inorganic substances.